GLOSSARY

 

 'ABD ALLAH : ‘Abd al-Muttalib's youngest son. Father of the Prophet (pbuh).

 'ABD ALLAH IBN UBAYY: One of the rulers of Yathrib before the Hijrah. He became a Muslim but secretly plotted with the Meccans against the Prophet (pbuh).

'ABD AL-MUTTALIB: Son of Hashim. He took the place of his father as the head of Quraysh. He dug the well of Zamzam.

'ABD ALLAH IBN ABU RABI'AH: Was sent with 'Amr ibn al-'As to Abyssinia. 'ABDU MANAF: Son of Qusayy; took over as leader of the Quraysh after his father's death.

ABRAHAH : King of Yemen who came to Mecca with a big army to destroy the Ka'bah.

ABRAHAM (IBRAHIM): The founding father of the three monotheistic (worshipping one God only) religions-Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The descendants of his son Ishmael (Isma’il) formed the tribe of Quraysh, which is the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

ABU BAKR : A rich and much respected merchant of Mecca. The first man to believe in the Prophet (pbuh) and embrace Islam. He was the Prophet's closest friend and companion.

ABU DUJANAH: One of the great Ansar warriors. It was he who died shielding the Prophet (pbuh) with his own body during the battle of Uhud.

ABU JAHL : One of the important men of Quraysh. Violently opposed to Islam, he did many things to harm the Prophet (pbuh). He was killed at Badr.

ABU LAHAB : One of the Prophet Muhammad's uncles, who was a great enemy of Islam. He is referred to in the Koran in surah cxi.

ABU SUFYAN: One of the leaders of Quraysh who led the unbelievers in their fight against the Prophet (pbuh). He finally became a Muslim. His wife was Hind.

ABU TALIB : The Prophet's uncle, father of ‘Ali, one of the respected men of Quraysh He took care of the Prophet (pbuh) after his grandfather died and continued to protect him until his own death.

'ADDAS : A Christian servant of one of the big tribes of Ta'if and the only person from this town to believe in the Prophet (pbuh) at the time of his first visit there.

ADHAN : Call to prayer.

'A'ISHAH : The Prophet's wife and daughter of Abu Bakr.

AL-'ABBAS : One of the uncles of the Prophet (pbuh). Converted to Islam and joined the Muslims just as they were about to enter Mecca.

‘ALI: Son of Abu Talib. First cousin of the Prophet (pbuh). ‘Ali later married Fatimah, the youngest daughter of the Prophet (pbuh).

ALLAHU AKBAR: Phrase meaning 'God alone is Great'.

ALMS : Money, clothes or food given to the poor.

AMINAH : Aminah bint Wahb. The mother of the Prophet (pbuh).

'AMR IBN AL-'AS: An important and clever man from Quraysh; was sent to Abyssinia to bring back the first Muslim emigrants. Later became one of the great warriors of Islam.

ANSAR : The inhabitants of Medina who became Muslims and asked the Prophet (pbuh) to come and live with them.

APOSTLE : Person sent to teach men about God.

ASSALAMU ALEIKUM WA RAHMATULLAH WA BARAKATUH:

Phrase used by the Muslims in greeting, meaning: 'May the Peace, Mercy and Grace of Allah be upon you.’

BAHIRA : A monk who lived in the desert on the Quraysh caravan route to Syria.

BANI HASHIM: The branch of Quraysh to which the Prophet (pbuh) belonged.

BANI QURAYZAH: A Jewish tribe who were living in Yathrib at the time the

Prophet (pbuh) arrived there. Several times they betrayed their covenant with the Prophet (pbuh) forcing him to fight them.

BEDOUIN : Nomadic Arabs of the desert, usually shepherds.

BILAL : The Slave of Umayyah ibn Khalaf. He became a Muslim against the will of his master and was persecuted cruelly but never lost his faith. Later he became the first mu’adhdhin (the person who calls the adhan).

BISMILLAH : The phrase meaning 'In the Name of Allah the Merciful, the

Compassionate'.

BOOTY : Things captured from an enemy in war.

BURAQ : Animal ridden by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) on his ascent to heaven (the Isra' and Mi'raj).

CARAVAN : A group of travelers, usually merchants with their goods.

CLAN : Large family or tribe.

CONGREGATION: Gathering of people for prayer.

CONVERT : To change from one state into another, usually said of religion.

COPT : An Egyptian Christian.

DESCENDANTS: People originating from a certain person (children, grand

children, etc.).

DESTINED : Fated, already decided by God.

FAMINE : Scarcity of food.

FAST : To go without food and water, e.g. the month of Ramadan.

FITRAH : The pure original nature God gave to man.

GABRIEL (JIBRIL): The Archangel who conveyed the Revelation of the Koran to the Prophet (pbuh) from Allah.

GRAZE : To feed on grass, as sheep do.

GUARDIAN : One who is responsible for someone (e.g. a child), a place, or thing.

HADITH : An account of what the Prophet (pbuh) said or did, or his silent approval of something said or done in his presence.

HAGAR (HAAJAR): Abraham's second wife and mother of his first son Ishmael.

HALIMAH : A Bedouin woman from Bani Sa’d, who cared for the Prophet (pbuh) during his early childhood.

HAMZAH : The Prophet's uncle; one of the bravest and strongest of the Muslims. Fought at Badr and was killed in Uhud.

HASHIM : Son of Abdu Manaf Organized the caravan journeys of Quraysh to Syria and Yemen. As a result Mecca grew rich and became a large and important center of trade.

HERACLIUS : Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

HERMIT : A holy man who lives far away from people.

HIJRAH : The flight from Mecca to Medina; emigration.

HIND : Abu Sufyan's wife.

IMAM : A man who leads the Muslims in prayer.

ISHMAEL (ISMAIL): The first son of Abraham from his wife Hagar. Settled in Mecca where he helped his father rebuild the Ka’bah. From his descendants came Quraysh.

ISLAM : Religion revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

JA'FAR IBN ABU TALIB: A cousin of the Prophet (pbuh) and brother of 'Ali, he was the spokesman of the Muslims who emigrated to Abyssinia.

KHADIJAH : The Prophet Muhammad's first and only wife until her death. She was the first to believe in the Prophet (pbuh) and to accept as true the Message he brought from Allah.

KHALID IBN AL-WALID: A great warrior, very skilled at warfare. He planned the defeat of the Muslims at Uhud, but later converted to Islam and fought even more strongly for his new faith.

MARTYR : One who dies in the cause of God.

MAYSARAH : Khadijah's slave. Accompanied the Prophet (pbuh) on his journey with Khadijah's caravans.

MINARET : Tower from which the call to prayer is made.

MOSQUE : Building in which Muslims pray.

MUSLIM : One who submits to God, usually referring to the followers of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

OASIS : A small area in the desert where water and trees arc to be found.

PARADISE : Place to which the souls of good people go after death. PILGRIMAGE : Journey to a holy place, e.g. Hajj.

PROPHET : A man who comes with a message from God.

QURAYSH : The descendants of Ishmael, son of Abraham, who became the most important tribe in Mecca. The tribe of the Prophet (pbuh).

QUSAYY : One of the leaders of Quraysh who became ruler over Mecca. He held the keys of the Ka'bah. (He is the great-great-great grandfather of the Prophet (pbuh).)

REPENT : To regret having done wrong and to vow not to repeat it.

REVELATION: Truth sent to man from God.

SACRIFICE : Making an offering to God; to give up a thing for some noble reason.

SA’D IBN MU’ADH: One of the Ansar (the people of Yathrib). He fought beside the Prophet (pbuh) at Badr and other battles. He died after the battle of the Trench.

SANCTUARY: A sacred place; a refuge.

SARAH : Abraham's first wife and mother of his second son Isaac.

SCHOLARS : Learned people.

SCRIPTURES : Holy book or writing.

SCROLL : A roll of paper or skin to be used for writing.

SEAL OF THE PROPHETS: The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) who was the last

Messenger from God to man.

SHEIKH : Head of a tribe; old, respected or learned man.

SIDRAT AL-MUNTAHA: The Lote-tree of the Uttermost, limit of the heavens.

SIEGE : To surround a town in order to capture it.

SLANDER : A lie that damages the reputation of a person.

SURAH : Chapter from the Koran.<

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TAWAF : Ritual encircling of the Ka’bah.

UBAYDAH IBN AL-HARITH: One of the three Muslims Prophet to start the fighting at the battle of Badr.

'UMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB: One of the bravest and most important men of Quraysh, who greatly influenced the course of Islam after his conversion to the faith.

UMAYYAH IBN KHALAF: One of the important men of Mecca and a great enemy of Islam. Fought at Badr and was killed by his former slave, Bilal.

WADI : Shallow valley.

WAHSHI : The Abyssinian slave who killed Hamzah.

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  • Free Islamic Encyclopedia using the wiki technology.
  • Free web/business Directory that anyone can edit.
  • Translating Islamic and other books into multiple languages.
  • Personal web pages that anyone (including you), can create.
  • And more ...